Wild edible mushroom types
Fungi (mushrooms) can be divided into 4 divisions (phyla): Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Deuteromycota although it seems that nowadays they are re-classified into 7 divisions where Ascomycota, Basidiomycota stay without major changes.
Zygomycota divison includes molds – black bread mold and molds that form important symbiotic relationships with plants.
Ascomycota division commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes includes yeasts, the powdery mildews, the black and blue-green molds, edible types such as the morel and the truffle.
Basidiomycota division includes the gill fungi, the pore fungi and the puffballs.
Deuteromycota division includes fungi species used in cheese production (Roquefort and Camembert), fungi that cause diseases (for example, ringworm or tinea) and those fungi that produce penicillin used in medicine.
Since my blog is about edible types of wild mushrooms I will concentrate on Basidiomycota division – pored mushrooms and gill mushrooms which I have already mentioned in my post “How do I identify wild edible mushrooms?“, plus puffballs.
I am familiar with edible sac fungi (Ascomycota division) such as morel and truffle although I do not find them as tasty as pore and gill fungi.
Pore fungi have the spore-bearing surface within tubes or pores; the fruiting bodies (in this case, fruiting body is a mushroom cap) are usually woody at maturity and persistent. If you look at the spore-bearing surface under the cap you will see spongy surface (formed by little tubes) which is firm and persistent (if we talk about Boletus or Suillus species) or a bit elastic and soft (if we talk about Leccinum species) when you touch it. However with age spongy surface becomes softer for all pore fungi species.
Gill fungi have a lamellar hymenophore—radially distributed blade-like processes with a hymenium—on the surface under the cap. The fruiting bodies of most gill fungi are annual and fleshy; less frequently, they are leathery.
To get better understanding of the mushroom structure please refer to the pictures below:
Both types of wild mushrooms (pore and gill fungi) have edible and poisonous species although to my opinion pored mushrooms have less poisonous species (which can be easier recognized) than gill mushrooms.
Edible pored mushrooms mostly include Boletus, Xerocomus, Leccinum and Suillus species. Here is the list of edible pored mushrooms I pick (they all will be described in my posts later):
Boletus edulis (known as Penny bun, Porcino or Cep),
Boletus pinophilus (known as Pine Bolete or Pinewood King Bolete),
Boletus luridis (known as Lurid Bolete)
Boletus badius (synonymous with Xerocomus badius; known as Bay Bolete),
Boletus appendiculatus (known as Butter Bolete),
Boletus chrysenteron (synonymous with Xerocomus chrysenteron; known as Red Cracking Bolete),
Boletus subtomentosus (synonymous with Xerocomus subtomentosus; known as Suede Bolete, Boring Brown Bolete or Yellow-cracked Bolete),
Leccinum scabrum (formerly classified as Boletus scaber, known as Birch bolete),
Leccinum versipelle (synonymous with Boletus versipellis; known as the Orange Birch Bolete),
Suillus granulates (known as the Weeping Bolete, or the Granulated Bolete)
Suillus luteus (known as as Slippery Jack or Sticky bun)
Some of them are on photos below:
Edible gill mushrooms include numerous species. I prefer few Lactarius (known as milky caps) and Russula species:
Lactarius deliciosus (known as Saffron milk cap, Red pine mushroom)
Lactarius deterrimus (known as False saffron milk-cap, Bitterer Milchling)
Lactarius necator (synonymous Lactarius turpis known as Ugly Milk-cap)
Lactarius torminosus (known as woolly milkcap, bearded milkcap)
Russula claroflava (known as Yellow Swamp Russula)
Russula foetens (known as Stinking russula)
Some of them are on the photos below: